# RSA

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission.

The strength of RSA relies on the fact that you need to factor n to obtain d and there is no known algorithm that can do that efficiently for large numbers.

## Introduction

RSA is an asymmetric cipher. The public key contains n and e, pubKey(n, e), and the private key contains n and d, privKey(n, d).

• p and q are two large random primes that validate the following equation :

$$n = p * q$$

• Euler’s totient function : $$\varphi(n)=(p - 1)(q - 1)$$

• e (public key exponent) must verify :

$$1 < e < \varphi(n)$$ $$gcd(e, \varphi(n)) = 1$$ $$d * e \equiv 1 [\varphi(n))]$$ $$d \equiv invmod(e) [\varphi(n))]$$

• m (plaintext) must verify (otherwise it will be trim by the modulus) :

$$m < n$$

Info

Greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers.

## Encryption (public key)

• c : ciphertext (encrypted message, the result of calculation)
• m : cleartext (plain message to send)
• e : exponent (from public key)
• n : product of two large prime numbers (from public key)

$$c = m^e [n]$$

## Decryption (private key)

• c : ciphertext (encrypted message, the result of calculation)
• m : cleartext (plain message to send)
• n : product of two large prime numbers (from public key)
• d : exponent (from private key)

$$m \equiv c^d [n]$$

• https://bitsdeep.com/posts/attacking-rsa-for-fun-and-ctf-points-part-1/
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_(cryptosystem)